Key References

In addition to the Guidelines document here is a selection of key comprehensive reports to get you up to speed with mobile LIDAR in transportation, click on the cover image to download the full reference. For a database including all references cited in the Guidelines document as well as additional relevant references continue on to the Literature Database.

Data Management and Governance Practices

N.Gharaibeh, I.Oti, D.Schrank, J.Zmud, 2017

Ref1ABSTRACT: Data-driven processes and technological advances have led to a steady increase in the amount and complexity of data collected and managed by state departments of transportation (DOTs) and local transportation agencies, such as municipalities and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs). Examples of these data include asset inventory and condition data, usage data from traffic counts, roadway design and construction data, and financial data. These data reside in attribute databases, geospatial databases, computer-aided design (CAD) files, three-dimensional models, multimedia files (e.g., image, video), and other forms. Increasingly, transportation agencies are viewing these data as assets that should be managed systematically and effectively, as physical infrastructure assets are managed.

Mobile Laser Scanning Technical Guideline

Queensland Government, Department of Transportation and Main Roads, 2014

Ref1ABSTRACT: The popularity of Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems revolve around the rich, accurate and repeatable information that is captured during an MLS project. It is these characteristics which “add value” past the immediate needs of a project and delivers a wider corporate value than what is achievable with other types of survey techniques. This document aims to bring consistent terminology and understanding to the MLS capture process for the Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland (TMR) and industry. Although not a standard, this Technical Guideline attempts to standardize common terms and methods that are being adopted in industry.

Best Practice for Mobile LiDAR Survey Requirements: Discussion Paper

Austroads, 2014

Ref1ABSTRACT: Australian and New Zealand road agencies, as well as transport agencies in the United States, have indicated that there is a strong desire for standardised accuracy reporting methods, data interoperability and management, control or check requirements and procedures for mobile LiDAR surveys. This document, published in July 2014, provides examples of mobile LiDAR survey requirements from several road agencies. It addresses requirements for positioning accuracy, point density, multiple passes, control & validation points and deliverables and documentation. The intention is to provide a useful guide in specifying mobile LiDAR procurement documents and serve as a starting point for a future Austroads guide for mobile LiDAR scanning.

Application of New Technologies to Improve Risk Management

Austroads, 2014

Ref1ABSTRACT: Austroads project AT1539 developed guidance for the use of new technologies that can improve the efficiency of road asset managers. This report is the second stage of the project and it assesses eleven new technologies that can be potentially useful for road asset managers. Each technology is described in terms of its concepts, physical principles, potential use in asset management and any limitations, case examples and, for level 1 and 2 priority technologies, standards and insights on the costs of the technology. The technologies are mapped to different asset management aspects. This mapping shows the type of data that is collected, which information is obtained and for which asset management aspect this information is used. Additionally, conclusions are drawn on how to deploy each technology based on the potential use in asset management, market readiness, the quality of the provided data and the costs and business case considerations. In particular, LiDAR technology was assessed to have a significant potential for road asset management. Potential applications and issues have been discussed in dialogue between road agencies and LiDAR industry stakeholders. This resulted in a separate discussion paper describing best practice for mobile LiDAR survey requirements.

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Technology Evaluation

R. A. Vincent, M. Ecker, 2010

Ref1ABSTRACT: The study TR10-007 Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Technology Evaluation project was undertaken to provide an analysis on the current state of Laser based technology and its applicability, potential accuracies and information content with respect to Missouri Department of Transportation (MODOT) applications. This study involved collection of Airborne, Static (Terrestrial) and Mobile LiDAR over a known project area with existing control and check data sets and provides an assessment of accuracy, cost and feasibility for MODOT projects.

LIDAR for Data Efficiency

T. Lasky, B. Ravani, K. Yen, 2011

Ref1ABSTRACT: This report documents the AHMCT research project: “LIDAR for Data Efficiency” for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). The research objective was to evaluate mobile LIDAR technology to enhance safety, determine efficiency gains, accuracy benefits, technical issues, and cost benefits of using this technology with a focus on collection, processing, and storage of the data into current WSDOT business processes. Vehicle mounted terrestrial mobile LIDAR systems have been developed to capture geospatial data of large highway areas at highway speed for highway surveying, asset management, as-built documentation, and maintenance operations. This tool presents an opportunity for WSDOT to consolidate geospatial data collection operations, and improve efficiency, safety for workers, and mobility of traveling public. A field pilot study was conducted to collect empirical data for feasibility evaluation and cost benefit analyses. While the pilot study demonstrated the potential positive impact in WSDOT business processes, it also highlighted the need for best practices documentation for using mobile LIDAR for DOT to ensure consistent and accurate results.

Using Mobile Laser Scanning to Produce Digital Terrain Models of Pavement Surfaces

K. Yen, K. Akin, A. Lofton, B. Ravani, T. Lasky, 2010

Ref1ABSTRACT: This report provides a detailed background and summary of work on using mobile laser scanning to produce digital terrain models of pavement surfaces. Land-based mobile scanning is a new and rapidly emerging technology and market. The capabilities of these mobile systems in the DOT context must be carefully evaluated for use in DOT applications. It is anticipated that the accuracy of these systems will not equal that of tripod-mounted scanners. However, the high mobility (scanning at highway speeds), capture of multiple highway areas (roadways, roadsides, structures), fusion of multiple sensors (laser scanners, cameras, GPS, inertial sensors, etc.), and massive amounts of data collected in a very short time will combine to enable new approaches to highway surveying, evaluation, data collection, operations, and management, which can only be glimpsed at this time.

Creating Standards and Specifications for the Use of Laser Scanning (Ground-Based LIDAR) in Caltrans Projects

B. Ravani, T. Lasky, K. Yen, J. Hiremagalur, 2013

Ref1ABSTRACT: Primary goals of this report are to develop a coordinated set of standards and specifications for the use of 3D laser scanning for Caltrans and its contractors, enable and promote increased use of 3D laser scanning in surveys to improve efficiency and safety, evaluate laser scanner hardware and software and clarify common limitations of 3D laser scanners as well as recommend methods for their mitigation.

Infrastructure Investment Protection with LiDAR

J. C. Chang, D. J. Findley, M. K. Tsai, C. M. Cunningham, 2012

Ref1ABSTRACT: The primary goal of this research effort was to explore the wide variety of uses of LiDAR technology and to evaluate their applicability to North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) practices. NCDOT can use this information about LiDAR in determining how and when the technology can be used most effectively. In addition to saving time and staff resources, LiDAR provides other added values such as improved safety, increased efficiency, and greater detail. The applications detailed in this report provide NCDOT with valuable information that serves the stated goals of NCDOT through applications of LiDAR. This report includes, a literature review of LiDAR state of the practice across the nation, concise one-page summaries of a variety of transportation and non-transportation applications, summaries of LiDAR discussions with NCDOT units, and survey results from state transportation agencies about their specific use of LiDAR.

LiDAR Applications for Transportation Agencies

CTC & Associates LLC, WisDOT Research & Library Unit, 2010

ABSTRACT: This report provides selected resources that describe the principles of LiDAR and the three types of LiDAR: airborne, mobile and terrestrial. LiDAR applications of interest to transportation agencies include surveying, highway design, corridor development, critical infrastructure protection, traffic flow, highway safety, and rock cuts and geology. Three key technical issues that are the topic of continued research are data collection and analysis, error and accuracy, and the integration of LiDAR and photogrammetry.

Review of Mobile Mapping and Surveying Technologies

I. Puente, H. Gonzalez-Jorege, J. Martinez-Sanches, P. Arias, 2013

ABSTRACT: Mobile surveying is currently one of the most popular topics in the LIDAR industry. The collection of highly precise point cloud data is provided by laser scanning systems on moving platforms with an integrated navigation solution. The potential of LIDAR based mobile surveying technology is now well proven. This article introduces an analysis on the current performance of some outstanding mobile terrestrial laser scanning systems. In this work, an overview of the positioning, scanning and imaging devices integrated into these systems is also presented. As part of this study, a systematic comparison of the navigation and LIDAR specifications provided by the manufacturers is provided. Our review suggests that mobile laser scanning systems can mainly be divided into two categories (mapping and surveying) depending on their final purpose, accuracy, range and resolution requirements. A refined integrated analysis based on hardware components could be expected to cause further improvements on these results.

Guide to Accelerating New Technology Adoption through Directed Technology Transfer

M. M. Hood, S. R. Thompson, R. J. Vance, M. S. Renz, B. T. Harder, J. Toole, S. T. Hunter, 2015

ABSTRACT: The viability of the nation’s transportation system depends upon continuing innovation that can make the system safer, last longer, and operate more efficiently. State transportation agencies, responsible for development and operation of major elements of this system, play an important role in this innovation. Technology transfer is an integral function in the process that advances innovation and brings new ideas to transportation organizations. In this guide, technology transfer refers to a way that ideas, knowledge, practices, products, processes, or techniques are shared between and within organizations. As a purposeful action, technology transfer involves at least two parties, a source and a recipient, engaged in the sharing of knowledge about new practices, products, processes, or other elements of technology.

Terrestrial Mobile LiDAR Surveying & Mapping Guidelines

Florida Department of Transportation, 2015

ABSTRACT: The intent of this document is to provide guidelines to help insure proper and efficient use of Terrestrial Mobile LiDAR (TML) technology in support of Florida Department of Transportation Projects. This document was adapted from CALTRANS Surveys Manual 2011. Where Possible this document is intended to coincide with the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP): Report 748.